What Is Online Marketing and Why You Should Do It?

What Is Online Marketing?

It is currently 2018 and as you may know, the most efficient way to grow and scale any business today is through the use of online marketing.  But not just any old Facebook ad or email marketing campaign, you need a complete online marketing strategy that is proven to get results.  This article will show you what I have learned through my years of doing online marketing and I will also give you a few examples of some people who are doing it right and some things that you should avoid in order to be successful.  Online Marketing is essentially marketing to potential customers online and it is so effective today because that is where a lot(if not most) of your potential clients will be nowadays.


Why Should You Be Doing Online Marketing?

Like I said before most of your clients and potential customers are online now multiple times throughout the day so that means that traditional marketing methods are no longer as effective as the new modern ways that are continuously developing.  If you run a business in 2018 and don’t have an online marketing strategy or at least aren’t in the process of developing on then you are making a tremendous mistake and I can promise you and your business will -pay for it.  Online Marketing is still fairly new so that means that even though there is a lot of competition;  they actually aren’t that good so if you take some time to study and learn the basics of online marketing (or hire somebody who does) then you can have huge success in the digital realm of marketing.

The Different Types Of Online Marketing – Where To Start?

How Can You Start Doing Online Marketing Efficiently

What’s The Future Of Online Marketing?

Online Marketing Now In 2018


Online Marketing In 2019

-User Experience



Why Blogging is Important to Your Business in 2018

Not too long ago, many companies considered it a big deal, just to have a professional website up and running – even when the multi-million dollar corporations started spending mega-bucks to grow their online presence, there were still lots of business owners who weren’t convinced of the huge impact an online identity and digital marketing strategy could make to a company’s bottom line.  Those were the days when people believed that nothing would ever eclipse the holy grail of marketing:  print, radio and television.  In fact, the web presence of many  businesses consisted of little more than online ‘landing pages’, which provided the visitor with the company’s basic contact information, but little else.  Today, we know that more and more local and global traffic is being directed to businesses via online searches – and these potential customers are doing their research and homework online, before making their purchase decisions.  In 2018, pretty much everyone understands that maintaining both a website and a strategic digital marketing campaign is critical  to their company’s success.  But for many, the question of whether or not we need a blog is not so certain.

Do We Really Need a Blog?

One question that is frequently asked by over-worked Owners and Managers is “Do we really need a blog?”.

 Well, in 2018, the resounding answer is YES!!

Blog Business 2018

From an SEO and performance perspective, there are some extremely compelling reasons why your company needs a blog.  In fact, it’s a complete no-brainer.  For example:

When your company has a blog, you’ll have a 434% higher chance of being ranked high on search engines (Tech Client). And, companies that blog receive 97% more links to their website.  **Remember that the more Backlinks your website gets from a variety of sites, the higher the site will rank in search engine results.

  • Blogs help corporate leaders and company’s develop their ‘Personal’ or ‘Corporate Brand’. A company or individual’s ‘personal brand’ can be thought of as their ‘reputation’ – everyone knows the advertising adage that bad news travels much faster than good.  It’s imperative that companies and their personnel maintain excellent reputations as these have a great impact on customer’s buying decisions.  Keep in mind that any company can be subjected to negative reviews from a disgruntled, unreasonable customer, but the more positive content that’s been published online about your company, the less it will be negatively impacted by a bad review.
  • Businesses using blogs as part of their content marketing mix get 67% more leads than those who don’t (Hubspot). And the customers that you attract through blogging tend to be higher-quality ‘Leads’ – these Leads may already familiar with your corporate values or history, having read your blogs, so they feel as though they ‘know’ the company and/or the writer of the blog (who is often the company founder or CEO).  And people are much more likely to do business with people that they know.

Getting The Benefits of a Blog

Content Is King
Content is King:

Consistent blogging with quality content will help you and your company grow your brand – the more readers begin to view your blog as a valuable resource for pertinent information, the more credibility you and/or your company will gain in your field. When you become a trusted, credible source, it becomes much easier for your company to sell goods or services –  customers are much more apt to purchase from people and companies they like and trust.  Blogs are one of the best ways to make customers feel as though they already know your company and/or its corporate leaders; this sense of familiarity can have a dramatic affect on sales because people like to buy from people they ‘know’.


Determine Your Goals:

When starting to write content, the would-be blogger should begin by determining exactly what their goals and objectives are for the content.  For example, is the content being created with the main intention being to drive traffic to the blogger’s e-commerce site?  Is the purpose of the content to relay valuable information to your customers?  Or, is the original content part of a strategic brand-building scheme?


Know Your Target Audience:

Once you’ve determined the goals of your content creation, you need to research your target audience – make sure you know who your target audience is, as well as what kind of information they’re interested in reading online.  The better you know the interests of your target audience, as well as where they like to ‘hang out’ (which websites), then you’ll have the best information that enables you to create the kind of content that will resonate best.



To achieve the best results, you need to be creating original content and publishing on a consistent basis.  In fact, consistency and reliability are considered even more important than frequency (for example:  it’s better to publish every Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Sunday – and stick to that schedule 100%, rather than to aim for a daily blog, but only achieve an 85% success rate).  If you want to attain the business benefits of a ‘blog’ you’ll need a system that ensures your company is creating and high-quality, informative content and that you’re posting on schedule.  Many bloggers use one of the many available online calendars to stay organized and on track.  Remember:  it’s very important that your target audience begins to view you as a subject matter expert who can be relied upon to follow through with commitments.



Publishing frequent blog posts will help your business grow.  When you are posting new blog content regularly, it will positively impact Search Engine Optimization – fresh, relevant and engaging online content causes the Google algorithm to index your website more frequently, which positively impacts its ranking.  And improved SEO means more visitors to your site and more opportunities to realize your business goals.


Best Practices for Business Owners

Some business owners take on the task of blogging themselves because they view it is a fantastic opportunity to communicate important information to their customers and prospects.  As time goes by, however, they may find that blogging takes more of an investment in time than they’re able to make, (especially in the midst of their many other responsibilities running the business).  As a result, content creation and blogging are often delegated to another internal leader or employee.  Or, the business owner may choose to outsource this important task to a Digital Marketing Agency; by utilizing the services of a professional marketer or writer, the business owner is able to focus on other activities that will best drive the business, (areas where the owner’s greatest personal expertise may reside).  In the long run, utilizing the services of a professional digital marketing agency often proves to be the most cost-effective solution with the most outstanding business results.

One 2018 survey indicated that 52% of business owners think that blogging is their most critical content marketing tactic.  Considering the value that business owners themselves place on blogging, any company that doesn’t include a blog strategy as part of their marketing plan is missing out on one of the most powerful tools in their marketing repertoire.  To stay updated regarding future posts on business, entrepreneurship and continuous learning, please subscribe to our newsletter.  Also, If you’d like to comment on this post, or if you have suggestions or a story you’d like to share, please contact us.

The EASIEST Business Model to Start in 2018

I grew up with a dad who encouraged me to be an entrepreneur.  He left medical school, much to the chagrin of his own father, to start his own Real Estate business.  And he never looked back.  ‘Always work for yourself!’ was his lifetime motto, and I’ve lived my life following his advice.  So, one question I get asked all the time is ‘what’s the best business model to start (in 2018)’.  I’m not going to tell you that starting and growing a viable business is every easy, but if you’re ready and willing to make the necessary commitment in yourself and your future, this is just my opinion on what are some of the easiest, most surefire methods for becoming a successful entrepreneur.

The one business that I know will always be in demand is Consulting.  Whether you’re interested in consulting with businesses or individual clients, starting a Consulting Business is an avenue for entrepreneurship that is a viable option for almost everyone.  The Key to starting a Consulting Business is that you have some information of value to share.  After all, a consultant is hired for one reason: Knowledge.   Nowadays, anyone can be a Consultant –  a consultant is defined as an expert in a particular field who works as an advisor either to a company or to another individual.  And depending on your ‘niche’, you usually don’t require any special degrees or certifications.  But if you’re looking to build a consulting business, you will need to discover what ‘gift’ or passion you’re most knowledgeable about so that you can market to others.  And if you don’t yet have the requisite skills, you’ll need to study and acquire the knowledge you need in a specific niche so that you have the marketable skills around which to build your Consulting Business.  Make sure there’s a market for your niche – after all, building a consulting business is all about turning your knowledge resources into a business that people are willing to pay money for.


As you grow your consulting company, you’ll soon find that if your business model is based on local clients and face-to-face interactions, there will be a limit to how quickly or successfully you’ll be able to scale your business.  But today, the world on online marketing gives entrepreneurs more opportunities to scale and grow efficiently and cost-effectively than ever before.  Once you’ve established a successful consulting model, you can start to scale your business exponentially by creating an online course or program.  This enables the entrepreneur to market his knowledge around the world!!  And don’t undercharge!!  Remember that you are a subject matter expert and your customers need the information that you are providing them – always charge minimum between $997 and $4997 for your course.  Once your potential client base and target audience expands throughout the world, your potential customers for your course and your potential profits are limitless.  Plus, your extended business reach enables you to help even more people by sharing your knowledge around the globe.  Because when your driving motivation and intention is to help people, your success is virtually guaranteed.

Some of the fantastic aspects of running an online business are the following:

  • Low startup costs (many online business models can be started for less than $50)
  • Almost non-existent overheads
  • Can be run from anywhere in the world
  • Can be run part-time
  • No staff required, unless you choose to

Once you’ve decided to build an online entrepreneurial business, there are some key behind-the-scenes activities that you must do to ensure that you’ll be successful.  It’s not always quite as simple as ‘if we build it they will come’ – when we’re talking the world of online business, where there is unlimited competition, the key is getting traffic/prospects to your site.   So you’ll need to implement the latest online marketing tools and techniques.  That means, to be successful, you’ll need to implement a Digital Marketing Strategy that may include both organic advertising, like SEO (search engine optimization), as well as paid marketing, like Facebook ads.  And the great thing with online marketing, is that you’ll have access to all kinds of new equipment and tools that track the key performance indicators (KPI’s) for your campaign, enabling you and your client to know the specific data results for your campaign’s individual components.  The great thing about this reporting is that it gives you all the information you need to continue revising your marketing strategy until you come up with the ‘current’ most effective plan.  Keep in mind, that your company’s internal marketing team, or the digital marketing company that you employ to take this this onerous business responsibility off your hands, will need to review and update the marketing strategy periodically, as the online marketing world is dynamic and constantly changing (the need to stay current on digital marketing trends is one of the reasons companies often decide to utilize a marketing service for this important task).

Digital Marketing Startegy

Once you start scaling your business online, you’ve started the process of ‘Growing Your Empire’.  Growing an online following is critical to your marketing success in 2018 (just look at Kylie Jenner, who is poised to become the youngest billionaire in history; Kylie marketed her ‘Lipkits’ exclusively using zero-cost social media options, simply exploiting her massive number of followers!).  One of the best ways for the ‘average joe’ or ‘joanne’ to build their social media following is to brand  themselves as a ‘subject matter expert’.  And one of the best ways to become an ‘expert’ is to start creating content that is both informative and ‘share-worthy’ for your readers.  Some online entrepreneurs have great success creating e-books that they either giveaway or sell at a very low price, all geared toward obtaining email ‘opt-ins’.  You’d probably be very surprised how quickly readers start viewing people as ‘experts’ simple because they’re written and published a small book!!

One pitfall online entrepreneurs often encounter, is the desire to do everything; whether they’re looking to save money, or whether the business owner is merely a bit of a control freak who doesn’t trust others to fulfill his vision, ultimately the failure to delegate tasks will result in lost revenue and a lack of growth in the business.  Delegating tasks is imperative if the entrepreneur hopes to achieve their goals – it frees up the entrepreneur to focus on higher-level concepts that will have the most impact driving their company’s growth.  There are lots of resources you’ll find for hiring contractors – personally, I’ve had a lot of success with Upworks.

Determining what kind of business you want to start online can seem like a really big decision.  And because the internet and the world of online business is constantly changing, many entrepreneurs choose to run several different online businesses simultaneously, so they’re never relying on just one stream of income.  The decision to start your own business can be one of the best decisions you make in your lifetime – and the great thing is that with the advent of the online business world, your opportunity to become a mega-successful entrepreneur is no longer dependent on the entrepreneur having a significant amount of start-up capital.  To stay updated regarding my future posts on business, entrepreneurship and continuous learning, please subscribe to our newsletter.  Also, If you have any suggestions or if you have a story you’d like to share, please contact us.

How Online Marketing is Changing Business in 2018

online marketing

Online Marketing and and the world of e-commerce have totally changed the way we do business in 2018.  Before the advent of the internet, starting a business required significant financial overhead, both to get a brick and mortar store up-and-running, as well as to make the necessary investment in  costly advertising campaigns to promote your goods or service.  Today, nobody needs a physical storefront to start a successful business and there is more opportunity than ever for small businesses to compete in the marketplace with the big brands, because garnering online attention is determined more by digital marketing knowledge, skill, and innovative strategies, rather than simply a company’s advertising budget.

In the late 1980’s, I was working at a large Toronto advertising agency; in those days advertising was divided into three main categories – print, radio and tv.  The less costly print and radio campaigns were reserved for the junior writers, generally younger and lower in the pecking order, while the big brand clients with their big budget television campaigns were serviced by the company’s  so-called creative ‘superstars’.  I wrote print and radio copy for a large automobile manufacturer, while the company’s dream team, (the Creative Director & Senior Copywriter), stole my taglines for their national television campaigns…   (but I digress).  In traditional advertising, small businesses, with their small advertising budgets, were usually relegated to print media marketing, like newspapers, magazines, and billboards, or radio advertising, (if they could afford it).  Budgetary limitations made it impossible for small businesses to compete on the same playing field as big brand corporations with their big television budgets.  Naturally, even today having a larger budget is an advantage in marketing, but in the Digital Age, ‘everyone can play’.   The Digital Age has completely revolutionized the reach of small business.

With traditional marketing campaigns, it was difficult to know whether the campaign was achieving their desired results – for the most part, it was impossible to calculate the actual return on investment  (for example, how can a business know how many people noticed their billboard, or whether their late-night radio ad is actually resulting in increased sales).  A store might seem ‘busier’ following a direct mail campaign, but the challenge with traditional advertising, was to specifically quantify the impact of the marketing.  Sure companies could implement various strategies to capture the results – customers might be asked to complete surveys regarding what brought them to their store, etc. – but it was impossible to calculate sufficient data for traditional marketing with any degree of accuracy.

Today, with online marketing, small businesses have digital marketing tools that give them access to a wide array of key performance indicators, and online analytics that enable them to track how well a campaign is working and whether they’re realizing a good return on their investment.  Business owners now can gather all kinds of data and information, such as ‘how’ their visitors found their website, or ‘who’ their customer is.  Talented marketers can use their tools and data to direct their ads so they’ll reach their specific target audience.  By reviewing campaign data on a daily basis, a skilled marketer is able to optimize campaigns real-time to maximize performance and results. This increased access to information afforded by digital marketing allows small business owners to take control of their own success and compete with the ‘big brands’ in a way never before possible.

The worldwide web has resulted in so many mind-boggling changes in the way we do business in 2018.  Some of us can still remember the days when brick and mortar stores were all closed on Sundays – it was the Law!!  Except for the neighbourhood convenience stores and restaurants, there were literally no stores open on Sundays.  It seems hard to believe today, but people survived with little difficulty, because every week we knew and expected the stores (and banks!) would be closed on Sunday, so we prepared in advance.  Today we have gone to the opposite extreme…  with 24/7 access to online business sites, customers now expect that retailers and business owners will be available at all times to help them or answer their queries.  One study showed that 89% of business owners viewed ‘Customer Service’ as their major point of competition in the marketplace.  While it’s not necessary that businesses make themselves available to customers at all times of the day, it is critical that they respond to customers in a timely manner – with so many online business options available, customers won’t tolerate poor service.  Also consider that in the past with traditional advertising, businesses basically told customers what they wanted them to know, via a billboard, or radio, for example.  But today, marketing has evolved from ‘monologue to dialogue’.  Online marketing often involves two-way communication between company and customer; customers will ask questions or make suggestions directly to businesses, and they expect a response.  If your marketing campaign involves personal interaction with your customers, you’d best ensure that you always engage with the highest level of customer care if you want to achieve marketing success.

Even if small businesses had the budget to invest in traditional advertising channels, it would no longer be in their best interests to do so – after all, when was the last time you sat in front of your television and watched a whole series of commercials?  Personally, I never watch television anymore unless it’s PVR’d (pre-recorded), and I fast-forward past every commercial (everyone I know does the same thing).  And if I’m not watching my commercial-free television, the rest of my entertainment viewing consists of online streaming.  Any company investing in costly tv commercials is wasting their time if I’m part of their target audience.

The skill-set of your digital marketing team is the most important factor that determines the success or failure of your company’s campaign.  If you’re a business owner who’s highly motivated to manage your own marketing, there are many excellent online resources and training programs that can help you begin to acquire the tools you’ll need.  But, with so many day-to-day business responsibilities, staying current with digital marketing trends can be a daunting challenge, especially in such a competitive marketplace with so many messages vying for attention.  Digital marketing is constantly evolving and it requires a significant time commitment to stay current on ever-changing algorithms and the latest tools and technology, so many entrepreneurs do find it’s easier, more cost-effective, and that they get better results when they employ a professional digital marketing agency (which also enables them to focus the bulk of their energies toward growing their business).  After all, updating website copy isn’t usually the top priority for most business owners.  Plus, today’s online viewers are inundated with information and they’ve become super-savvy data consumers – it’s no longer good enough to simply create traditional sales advertisements.  If you want your message to get noticed by your target audience, your campaign needs to be creative and it must give your online visitor something of value.  Enlisting the services of marketing professionals can help.


Remember that traditional advertising is basically dead.  Gone are the days when budget alone determined the efficacy of a marketing campaign and buying ads during the Superbowl was the advertising Holy Grail.  And gone are the days when the best forms of advertising, like tv and full-page print ads, were out-of-reach for anyone but the big brands.  Online Marketing has transformed the marketing landscape – it is a necessary option for every business that wants to be successful in 2018.  A recent study showed that 75% of local searches resulted in an in-store purchase – with that kind of power to drive buying decisions, online marketing is unrivaled in its ability to drive your desired business results.  To stay updated regarding future posts, please subscribe to our newsletter.  Also, If you have any suggestions or if you have a story you’d like to share, please contact us.

What Are The Determining Factors Of Success? (Outliers Book)


‘Outliers’ By Malcolm Gladwell is one of my favorite books about success I’ve ever read so I though I would share some of the key things I have taken from the book (AKA The determining factors of success).  Basically why some people succeed and others don’t, I have also done some research myself and cited my sources below — So without further a-do let’s get right into it!

1. Talent, Opportunity, Work, and Luck

Success is far from impossible like most make it out to be.  There are many commonly held misconceptions about why people actually succeed and fail and this creates confusion around the topic of success and failure and what it takes to “make it big”.  In reality there are only a few main factors that determine whether a person will ultimately achieve greatness and succeed or stagnate and “fail” as we call it. These are seemingly random factors many do not take notice of but if applied correctly they can practically make success an inevitability.  But failure is likely as inevitable if these crucial factors are not put in place properly or violated. The “secret” to success in truth is an impossible-to-bottle mixture of timing, luck, cultural heritage, and thousands of hours of practice. Even if the circumstances aren’t in your favor don’t displace the idea that you could still succeed, for these factors and behaviors may still be cultivated if you understand them in depth and take action to replicate your life with someone who has already accomplished what you are striving for.

2. Timing and Historical Context

Timing and historical are a major key if one wishes to achieve success.  Having a set of skills that one develops through hard work is not enough to guarantee success. In addition, one must also live in a time when those skills are valued by your culture and this is where the role of historical context and timing comes in for determining success.  If the time period does not need our skills at the moment no matter how skilled we are we will not have as much of an impact we could of possibly had at another point in time. Also our historical moment might also prevent you from acquiring certain skills that others can due to their historical moment. For example, if you entered the workforce as a computer scientist before the era of personal computers, when the personal computer did finally become mainstream, you would be too invested in the “old” way of doing things. You would be inevitably stuck in a historical status quo and you would never attain the level of success of someone like Steve Jobs or Bill Gates.

3. Privilege, Heritage, and Cultural Background

A few more factors that can determine success are the complex and often misunderstood relationships among individual talent, hard work, opportunity, and luck. In truth individual talent is necessary but not sufficient to achieve success, opportunity, luck and of course hard long work also pays a huge role. The surrounding context of available opportunity is very crucial. For example, Bill Gates would never have been so successful without his unusually frequent exposure to computing technology in an era where computers were still rare.  Therefore you can not only be talented and willing to work hard—but you actually have the opportunity to be able to. Luck also plays a crucial role in success, seemingly random factors like date of birth can be integral to achieving success. For example, a young Canadian boy’s birth month can actually have a huge impact on his likelihood of success in hockey. Hockey is a part of our Canadian culture; the regulations state that children born in the same year play in the same league, but because kids grow so quickly there is often a huge disparity in size.  Studies show that often these smaller kids, almost a year younger than their teammates, are identified early as ‘weak’ players, and this becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. When the opportunity comes where they can pay rep the earlier birth months make higher level rep teams and are challenged against better hockey players. They then get all the attention from their coaches and get better faster and faster while the lower level players have no chance because they never had the same luck and opportunity that the children with early birthdays got. In the book Outliers the author indicates that it’s more than a coincidence that over 70% of professional hockey players had birthdays in either January or February. What started out as just a little difference in skill turned into a huge one all because of the luck earlier birth month boys had and the opportunity it presented them.  The truth is success is largely influenced by talent, hard work, opportunity, and luck, and pervasive societal narrative about success resulting from being “gifted” is a misconception, and “pure talent” is a myth.

4. Solutions and Implications for the Future

Privilege and cultural heritage also play a critical role  in determining success. Cultural heritage can be an advantage or a disadvantage, and sometimes it can be both at once.  For example, the rise of Jewish-run law-firms in New York City in the early 20th century had much to do with the fact that Jews were discriminated against, and forced to form their own (often litigation-oriented) firms. This ended up giving Jewish firms a major advantage when corporate takeovers became common practice later in the 20th century. The tremendous success of many of New York’s most legendary lawyers stemmed from the disadvantage that religious discrimination had formerly imposed on them: a disadvantage became a huge advantage over time. Our cultural heritage can influence our attitudes towards race, religion, honor, work (and what constitutes “meaningful” work), money, and entitlement.

These are the factors that typically foster success and either will make you succeed or fail.  The socially conditioned view of success will get you nowhere because it is flawed and will prevent you from having the correct mindset and attitude to achieve success.  These factors are all possible to adhere to as long as you stay focused on your long hard working tedious journey towards success with all the bumps you’ll encounter on the way.


1. Talent, Opportunity, Work, and Luck

Kalla, S. (2012). Forbes Welcome. Forbes.com. Retrieved 9 September 2018, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susankalla/2012/05/31/six-keys-to-excellence-at-anything/

The Forbes article, Keys to Excellence, talks about basketball superstar Michael Jordan and how he became a six-time NBA championship winner.   Although natural talent is a factor for world class athletes, the article makes clear that it was Michael Jordan’s disciplined practice and incredibly hard work ethic that contributed most directly to his success.  Both the story about Michael Jordan and the book  Outliers  set out to dispel the myth that great successes are born, rather than made.  Also, both the article and book conclude that hard work and the right mental attitude are the two most important contributing factors to success.

2. Timing and Historical Context

Lee, B. (2014). Will Automation Take Our Jobs?. Scientific American. Retrieved 9 September 2018, from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/will-automation-take-our-jobs/

This article talks about  a study published at the University of Oxford estimating the probability that 702 occupations would soon be computerized out of existence.  This means that many changes to labor, markets and businesses and some people will lose their jobs. In the book Outliers it talks about how having a set of skills that one develops through hard work is not enough to guarantee success. In addition, one must also live in a time when those skills are valued by your culture.  The article talks about this as well and how in the future there a lot of people’s skills may no longer be of value in our culture due to Technology.

3. Privilege, Heritage, and Cultural Background

Keating, P. (2011). THE WORLD OF SPORTS runs on merit, right?. ESPN. Retrieved 9 September 2018, from http://espn.go.com/espn/story/_/id/6777581/importance-athlete-background-making-nba

This article looks at whether it is an athlete’s grit and determination that leads to their success, or whether there are other cultural and economic factors at work.  It talks about the 1960’s and 70’s, when over 90 percent of NBA players were from urban areas, as it was a cheap game to play and basketball courts were community meeting spots.  But, as the game gained popularity, attracting more fans and corporate sponsors, it now costs too much for many inner-city kids to compete at the highest level. The book Outliers also talks about how economic and other cultural factors can influence a person’s ability to be successful in specific areas.  Hockey is a part of our Canadian culture; the regulations state that children born in the same year play in the same league, but because kids grow so quickly there is often a huge disparity in size.  Studies show that often these smaller kids, almost a year younger than their teammates, are identified early as ‘weak’ players, and this becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. In Outliers, the author indicates that it is more than a coincidence that over 70% of professional hockey players had birthdays in either January or February.

4. Solutions and Implications for the Future

Mitchell, M., & Leachman, M. (2015). Years of Cuts Threaten to Put College Out of Reach for More Students. Center of Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved 9 September 2018, from http://www.cbpp.org/research/state-budget-and-tax/years-of-cuts-threaten-to-put-college-out-of-reach-for-more-students

This article talks about how society’s cuts to education funding have made college too expensive for many students, and with a growing number of jobs demanding a college education, the future for some of these low-income kids may be marginalized.  In the book Outliers, the author puts forward strategies to combat the low-graduation rates of inner-city schools and to encourage post-secondary education; he presents strategies, such as shortening summer vacation, as this has been shown to reduce the drop-out rate.

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